Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Synchronize OID with Active Directory

There's quite a difference between (and earlier versions) and in the syncing business. You may now use multiple profiles quite easily and even have separate jobs for each profile. This would allow for a multi-AD-domain company to allow for different frequencies of synchronization: have one, well-know busy AD Domain synchronize very frequently, and other less frequent.
You may also enable or disable profiles by simply removing them from the running sync job(s); that process is called disassociation.


So, what do I need?
1 Active Directory Installation
1 Oracle Identity Management Installation

I go both, one running VMWare (MS AD - I had it shipped as VMWare image), one Oracle, installed under VirtualBox.

Start it up

As the Oracle installation is as basic as it can be, it needs starting up:
frank@frank-cs03:~$ ssh oracle@
oracle@'s password:
Last login: Fr Sep 10 16:43:24 2010
[oracle@oracleas ~]$ . oraenv
ORACLE_SID = [oracle] ? iasdb
[oracle@oracleas ~]$ lsnrctl start

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version - Production on 29-DEC-2010 09:46:40

Copyright (c) 1991, 2004, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Starting /oracle/ias/10.1.4/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version - Production
System parameter file is /oracle/ias/10.1.4/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /oracle/ias/10.1.4/network/log/listener.log
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=oracleas)(PORT=1521)))

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=oracleas)(PORT=1521)))
Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version - Production
Start Date 29-DEC-2010 09:46:41
Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
Trace Level off
Security ON: Local OS Authentication
Listener Parameter File /oracle/ias/10.1.4/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File /oracle/ias/10.1.4/network/log/listener.log
Listening Endpoints Summary...
Services Summary...
Service "PLSExtProc" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "PLSExtProc", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully

I need a tcp based listener, because of the OID/ldap stack, that uses tcp. Otherwise, I would not have gone through all of the tcp stack, but use Direct Calls, or even better: bequeth, which does not need a listener at all. Anyway - open the database:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Wed Dec 29 09:47:33 2010

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 281018368 bytes
Fixed Size 779000 bytes
Variable Size 229645576 bytes
Database Buffers 50331648 bytes
Redo Buffers 262144 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

After all that, it is time to get ldap running. It needs to connect to the database, so this is the correct starting order:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ $ORACLE_HOME/opmn/bin/opmnctl startall
opmnctl: starting opmn and all managed processes...

See if all is started:
[oracle@oracleas ~]$ $ORACLE_HOME/opmn/bin/opmnctl status

Processes in Instance: ias_1014.oracleas
ias-component | process-type | pid | status
DSA | DSA | N/A | Down
LogLoader | logloaderd | N/A | Down
dcm-daemon | dcm-daemon | N/A | Down
OC4J | OC4J_SECURITY | 2811 | Alive
HTTP_Server | HTTP_Server | 2726 | Alive
OID | OID | 2731 | Alive

If you would like to know which ports are used by the http server, use the "-l" option of the opmnctl command (-l stands for "long").
Now, with the OID, there's another check you ought to be aware of. Similar to the way the Oracle Process Manager (opmn) monitors, OID has it's own set of monitors. Activity of these can be checked by using the ldapcheck command:
[oracle@oracleas ~]$ $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/bin/ldapcheck

Checking Oracle Internet Directory Processes ...ALL

Process oidmon is Alive as PID 2731
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2749
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2783
Not Running ---- Process oidrepld
Process odisrv is Alive as PID 2770

oidmon (PID 2731) is the OID Monitoring process itself; it is the process, that is actually monitored by opmn. The two oidldapd processes are two LDAP Daemons. Other than that, there's an inactive Replication process, oidrepld, that is only used in Enterprise-class setups, as I described here.
The final process is the one, I'm interested in: it's the Oracle Directory Integration service, odisrv for short.

What if I have no ldapcheck?

Well, I did not, either. You can download diptester from here, unzip it, and rename "ldapcheck_for_HPUX" to ldapcheck, do a chmod 740, and you're in business.

What id ldapcheck returns
ps: illegal option -- o

Apply same medicin as "What if I do not have ldapcheck"


Now, in order to get OID to synchronize from AD, I need a few things:
  • a highly privileged account on Active Directory
  • Names, or IP-addresses, of servers involved
  • an understanding of mapping, with base of OID as well as AD

As for the account, I'll use my own account, which is member of the administrators group - do not use this in production! But you do need an account, that is allowed to query the "Deleted users" section - and that requires quite some privileges. If you cannot see "Deleted Users", users can be removed from AD, but will always remain in OID. And that is a security issue...

IP addresses: The oracle iAS runs is called oracleas.home.local at, the PDC is located at

Mapping: well, whoever invented that should be prosecuted. As long as you keep it basic, and simple, there are few problems. As soon as you company is operating multiple domains, it is a RPITA to get things running smoothly.


Mapping is based on profiles. The fastest way to get things running is to take a copy of $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/odi/conf/ and use that as basis.
The base in OID is dc=bortel,dc=home, as you can see from this picture of the OID Aministration tool, oidadmin:

This is the correct entry, as this entry holds the users. Same is true for Active Directory, although I know no other way than to query the darn thing:

C:\Documents and Settings\frank>ldapsearch -Z -h w2k-pdc -p 3268 cn=frank cn
What I am doing here, is query my own credentials, using the built-in security (-Z), the localhost as ldap host (-h w2k-pdc), and query the Global Catalog port (-p 3268).
Anyway - my AD mapping is dc=home, dc=local.

Mapping rules

In the mapping file, this results in the first line being:


In words: maps everything, found under cn=users,dc=home,dc=local (in Active Directory, as it is left of the colon) to cn=users,dc=bortel,dc=home (in Oracle Internet Directory, as it is right of the colon).

These are the domain rules.

If you have more domains, just add mapping rules. If you have organized your domain in Units (Organizational Units, or "ou" in LDAP-speak), start mapping rules at that level, and add, or omit to your needs.


Now, a new tool needs to be used, the dispassistant. User is dipadmin - password of dipadmin is identical to the password of orcladmin:

New in this version is the use of Connector Profiles, and profile Sets.
Due to badly documented features, and some documentation bugs it is best to create a new Connector Group.
First of all, rename the Connector Groups "configset1" to "standardgroup". The original name will just create misunderstanding, as the are configsets in use with OID.

Then, create the group you will be using for your actions - the "standardgroup" will remain as the group holding all defaults, but will not actually be used. My new group is called "demo":

Next, go to the standardgroup, and disassociate ActiveChgImp:

Then, select the newly created group "demo", and associate the profile:

Note, the profile is still Disabled. Edit the profile, and fill in the connection defaults on the first tab:

On the third tab, make sure the filter properties do not have quotes around them - it's a bug:

On the last tab, I always change "Continue on Error" to Yes; I have no tools to monitor whether every change gets into OID correctly. Most of the errors I see, are on duplicated entries anyway.
You may also want to change the frequency of synchronization: every 60 seconds seems on the high side, escpecially if you have 7 profiles, like my customer, one of which connects to a Active Directory with 13,000 users.

Modify the profile mapping file to your liking, and load it into the profile:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ dipassistant mp -D cn=orcladmin -profile=activechgimp
Profile successfully modified.
[oracle@oracleas ~]$


The first, initial (bulk) load of the accounts is call bootstrapping:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ dipassistant mp -D cn=orcladmin -profile=activechgimp
Profile successfully modified.
[oracle@oracleas ~]$

Results of this process may be found in $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/odi/log/bootstrap.log and ~.trc

You can also inspect the OID with the oidadmin tool:

(and see there's a problem with krbPrincipalName...)


Now, all that's left is to start the process of syncs every x seconds. In order to do that, I'll need to start the connectorgroup:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/bin/ldapcheck

Checking Oracle Internet Directory Processes ...ALL

Process oidmon is Alive as PID 2513
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2519
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2526
Not Running ---- Process oidrepld
Process odisrv is Alive as PID 2521
[oracle@oracleas ~]$ oidctl connect=iasdb server=odisrv instance=2 configset=1 flags="grpid=demo" start
NLS_LANG not set in environment
oidctl:Waiting for oidmon to start ODISRV (instance=2)
oidctl:Waiting for oidmon to start ODISRV (instance=2)
oidctl:Started ODISRV (instance=2) with PID : 21496 successfully

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/bin/ldapcheck

Checking Oracle Internet Directory Processes ...ALL

Process oidmon is Alive as PID 2513
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2519
Process oidldapd is Alive as PID 2526
Not Running ---- Process oidrepld
Process odisrv is Alive as PID 2521
Process odisrv is Alive as PID 21496
[oracle@oracleas ~]$

There are two odi processes now. The second one is the AD-OID synchronisation.
Logging of this process is in the same directory as the bootstrap: $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/odi/log.
You will see the timestamp changing (and the file will grow.

Now, after adding a new user in AD, I can quey these:

[oracle@oracleas ~]$ ldapsearch cn=frank* uid

cn=frank w.j.. van bortel,cn=users,dc=bortel,dc=home

And that proves, the synchronisation is working!

Groups, and all that

This is to be added: how to sync groups, and split these. I will also mention some considerations about syncing, especially on multiple domains.


Guy Tackaert said...

Very Nice !
Please review your bootstrap command. (copy\paste error ?)
Should be something like:
dipassistant bootstrap -cfg ...\

I did not know of the "" bug in the Matching Filter section. AD - OID synchro seems to work here without removing those quotes.

We also had to use the "highestcommitedUSN" as Last Applied Change Number in the Status section.

We also did AD external authentication and WNA.

Frank said...

Thanks for spotting that, Guy! Now I will have to go through the history of de VM to see what I actually used. Or find the logfile ;)

oradb said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
oradb said...

Very Helpful.
Is this valid for OID 11g ?

Frank said...

It depends... (doesn't it always?). The synchronzation profiles in 11G (I tried 11G R2/V11.1.1.6 OID/DIP) are exactly as these profiles. The interface is different: no dipassistant anymore, and diptester has been incorporated in the GUI.
And... as long as you have errors in your profiles (and, using port 3268, you will!), you cannot activate a profile, unless by using the commandline with the force option.

Frank said...

The above commandline option in 11G ( would be:
manageSyncProfiles activate -h [servernaam] -p 7005 -D weblogic -pf AD2OID -fa true
The "-fa true" part is the 'force option'

Sunil Sharma said...

We have one system says hr system which take care of entering all the user information. Once it submit that information it goes to oid. Now we want that when we import all that user from oid to active directory it didn't duplicate any user as well as depending on their role it should create groups dynamically in active directory. For e.g: If user belong to Trainee category or manager category it must create Trainee group & Manager group & respective person should go into that group. I don't know whether my question is placed in right group or not. Any help will be appreciated.

Sonya Sharma

Frank said...

Check out DIP with OID->AD sync. That should take care of your users.
On the roles part, I cannot comment: it is something specific of you HR system.
In general, I'd say:
(1) look into the successor of this: 11GRel 2 is out by now.
(2) To me, this looks like a strange sequence: I'd suspect your HR system to feed AD, and AD to sync to OID.

Sarita Khamkar said...

hi frank,

I want to sync users as well as groups from OID to Active directory. My Req is user and groups should synchronized from OID to Ad only in one direction. we have 100 groups in OID and want to sync in AD. Can it possible to sync OID groups to AD through DIP


Frank said...

First of all: update to the final release:! Or even better: to 11G.
Having said that: yes DIP (which has not really changed in 11G from 10G) can do syncs from OID to AD.

Sarita Khamkar said...

hi Frank thanks for the reply..
Here in my requirement 100 Groups are present in OID but it is not present in AD and when sync start then group should be created at AD as it is present in OID. So can groups created in AD if it is not present in AD through synchronization.

And if we can create groups through synchronization then can we use same profile for user and groups.